What Do Scientists Do? The World of Scientific Research

May 1, 2021

There's a lot of talk about science these days. But what is it? Why is it important? What do scientists do?

Science is a body of knowledge as well as the beginning of a process. We live and experience science in every aspect of our life. Starting from the moment, we wake up to an alarm clock to bed at night, our lives are entangled with science. 

Science encourages discoveries and inventions that improve the environment for all humans and animals. The study of the past, present, and future is enabled by science and its newest inventions. 

Scientists are constantly on the lookout for solutions that will lead the human race to a brighter future. The critical observations made by the scientists also answer questions to the whys', who's, and when's often asked by people around the world. 

The History of Science

The history of science is the study of science development, which includes both social and natural science. Science systematically gives us knowledge about the universe and the world we live in

You can trace the earliest roots of science back to Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt between 3000-1200 BCE. Science, scientists, and mathematicians have existed even before the modern era. 

The ancient Egyptians discovered a numbering system with decimal characters and have introduced geometry into humankind. They also developed a calendar with twelve months, thirty days in each month, and three hundred and sixty-five days at the end of the year.

The ancient Mesopotamians also used science to manufacture glass, soap, pottery, faience from natural chemicals. The civilization studies and knew the movement of astronomical objects and have mentioned it in their scriptures on astrology. The Mesopotamians also possessed excellent knowledge in the fields of medicine. 

What Do Scientists Do?

The experts who research and examine various aspects of the physical world and beyond to improve the human race are known to be Scientists. Each scientist chooses a field of interest and invests their time in doing new researches. There are a few set rules and a few scientific techniques that every scientist follows for their discoveries. Sometimes, they discover new theories, even drifting from these techniques. 

Scientists worldwide are working towards a singular goal of improving the quality of life for the Earth’s inhabitants. These days, even multi-national companies hire scientists further to research the currently available products and further upgrades. 

Hospitals believe that medicine has a greater scope of scientific research for new and improved medication in modern times. As of 2020, one of its most recent examples is the development of the Coronavirus vaccine. 

The scientists attempt different pathways to achieve this singular goal as they continue to keep adding knowledge for discoveries for a better life in the future. 

According to specializations, kids can choose their path in science. Like a chemist, biochemist, biologist, marine biologist, molecular biologist, microbiologist, cytotechnologist, geologist, archaeologist, astronomer, etc.

These days' scientists are also teaching the next generation in the classrooms and are not just found blocked-up in labs making discoveries. They are just like other ordinary people with extraordinary knowledge and a clear vision.                    

How Does Scientific Research Work?

Scientific researches are the detailed studies that are in theory before they have physically experimented. Scientific research is classified as:

  • Descriptive research
  • Analytical research

The classification is done based on data collection and the relationship between time and method of application. 

Descriptive Research

This type of research in which the participants examine the distribution of diseases in different places and at a particular time. It includes case reports and surveillance studies.

Analytical Research

The difference between analytical and descriptive research is the availability of a comparison group. These are classified as observational and interventional research.

The other type of research is Clinical Research. Clinical Research only works with the help of a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a value of a population parameter that is based on sampling.

The main focus of scientific research is discovering laws and theories that can explain both natural and social phenomena and establish a scientific fact. This process helps in deriving predictions of logical consequences and also carries out experiments or observations.

Important Contributions by Scientists

Aristotle (384-322 BC)

Aristotle was known to be one of the greatest philosophers in history and a genuine scientist. He was a zoologist, biologist, and political scientist.

His theories in subjects like Metaphysics, Biology, Physics, Zoology, Economics, Logic, Aesthetics, Poetry, Psychology, Ethics, and many make him one of the greatest inventions. He estimated the size of the Earth, and he also explained the chain of life. 

Archimedes (287-212 BC)

Archimedes was the greatest mathematician ever, and he had a profound knowledge of physics, mathematics, and engineering. 

He also discovered the laws of density, fluid equilibrium, lever, and buoyancy. He introduced infinitesimals and also founded calculus.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642 AD)

Galileo is known as the father of modern science due to his discoveries in astronomy and physics. He was forced to study medicines by his father, but he changed his mind and studied mathematics.

He invented the first telescope and discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter. He also invented the law of the pendulum and discovered that the moon's surface is not smooth.

Michael Faraday (1791-1867 AD)

Faraday is known for the discoveries about electromagnetic inductions and their rotations, field theory. He invented the electric motor and Faraday's ring. He also published papers on the isolation of benzene from gas oils and the condensation of gases.

Albert Einstein by Banksy

Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727 AD)

Sir Isaac Newton was one of the most outstanding scientists and mathematicians of all time. He is an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and author known for his gravitation law. 

Newton explained the theory of gravity and gravitation with the help of calculus as there were no other principles for defining it. He also explained the tide theory, which is caused by the gravitational pull of the sun, moon, and Earth.

Albert Einstein (1879-1955 AD)

Albert Einstein remains to be one of the most outstanding revolutionary scientists in the world. His remarkable works in physics make him the father of modern physics and the general theory of relativity.

How to Get Involved in Science?

You can be a part of a scientific community. If you wish to become a scientist, you must know your area of interest and contribute to the same. You can join the organizations which support research work and make your contributions in the scientific field. 

In this journey, you may meet people worldwide who think alike and perhaps work towards achieving the same goal. Your research must be unique, and the results must be productive. 


Scientists around the world is helping humankind to expand our knowledge about the universe or the world. Discoveries are making the impossible possible, saving lives, improving the quality of life. 

The knowledge which is generated by science is valid, reliable, and very powerful. Ranging from young kids to adults, science is involved with our everyday lives. 

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